Click on browser Back button to return to the page.

    1 Lily Tomlin

    2 Dixon Wecter, "How to Write History," in A Sense of History, American Heritage (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1985). 38.

    3 Sanford H. Cobb. The Story of the Palatines. Facsimile Reprint. (Bowie, Md.:Heritage Books, 1988) 23-24.

    4 Will and Ariel Durant, The Age of Reason Begins, vol. 7 of the Story of Civilization (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1961). 567-568.

    5 Donald L. Spidell. "The Times." The Great Palatine Migration>, <> ( 24 February 1999).

    6 Cobb, 6.

    7 Cobb, 36-37.

    8 Jacobean refers to the political movement to restore James II to the English throne.

    9 Cobb, 42.

    10 Cobb 36-37.

    11 Cobb, 40.

    12 Cobb, 41.

    13 Cobb, 40-42.

    14 Kraig W. Ruckel, "Palatine Emigrants," Palatine and Pennsylvania Dutch Genealogy, 1966, <> (14 August6 1999).

    15 Ruckel, 1.

    16 Cobb, 79.

    17 Cobb, 129.

    18 Cobb, 113.

    19 Much of this information comes from the autobiography of Conrad Weiser, one of the leaders of the New York Palatines. Sanford Cobb states that is the only source of the story.

    20 Cobb,

    21 Cobb, 282.

    22 Phil Bickel, <> "Bickel Genealogy." 19 June 2001. Personal e-mail ( 19 June 2001).

    23 Lorine McGinnis Schulze. "Palatine History," The Olive Tree Genealogy. 1996, <> ( 16 February 2000). 2-3.

    24 Spidell, 7-8.

    25 Spidell, 8.

    26 Edward F. Wright, Early Church Records of Lebanon County Pennsylvania (1934). 187.

    27 See appendix V for further discussion.

    28 Brickerville is today in Elizabeth Township. It was originally a part of Warwick Township. Stoever had at least two other congregations in the area and collectively he referred to them as Warwick.

    29 There were two and possibly three Catarina Brauns in the Emanuel Lutheran Congregation, so it is possible for the baptismal sponsor for the Faber child to have been someone other than Michael's mother. Michael's sister was also Catarina, and there was a Martin Braun in the congregation who married Catarina Heusserin in 1739. I have assumed that the baptismal sponsor was a single woman; otherwise her husband would have been mentioned. It's possible that Michael's sister was the sponsor, she was a single woman in 1743, but it would have been more common for a baptismal sponsor to have been an older person.

    30 There is a Philip Karger, age 20, who arrived in America on the Lydia in 1741. Also a David Karger obtained a warrant for land in Lancaster County in 1737, but it is not known if either of these persons is related to Anna.

    31 See deed abstracts in appendix III.

    32 William Henry Egle, History of the Counties of Dauphin and Lebanon in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. (Philadelphia: Everts and Peck, 1883) 177.

    33 See Will of Michael Brown in appendix 1.

    34 John P. Hale. History of the Great Kanawha Valley. ( Gauley, WV: Gauley & New River Pub. Co., 1994) 24-25.

    35 Theodore E. Schmauk, Old Salem in Lebanon. Lebanon, Pa. 69-70.

    36 Rev. Frederick S. Weiser, The First Record Book of Salem Evangelical Lutheran Church at Killinger Dauphin County, Pennsylvania in the Lykens Valley 1770 - 1859. (1966) 4-6.

    37 See records from the Pennsylvania Archives in Appendix I.

    38 Jonathan M. Wert, Jr., Chronology of Events - History of Wirth's Evangelical Lutheran Church 1770-1815. 3.

    39 See Michael Brown's will in appendix I.

    40 Census records for Frederick's children in 1860 and beyond show that their father was born in Pennsylvania.

    41 See notes in appendix V for further discussion.

     42 There are no records for Mary as an adult and so it has been assumed that she died as a child. It has been proposed that the other daughter, Christina, may have been Maria Christina and therefore may have been known as Mary and so the Christina recorded in the Salem Church records in Killinger could have been the Mary in Robert Safford’s biography.

    43 Shenandoah County is just north of Rockingham. There was a Jacob Bickel family that lived in Shenandoah County starting in 1783. For a long time, I had believed that this was our ancestor, but eventually a land deed surfaced that was signed by Jacob and his wife Christina. This Jacob Bickel was very likely the Jacob Bickel that married Christina Schindler in Lebanon County (then Lancaster County), Pennsylvania in 1776.

    44 Catharine's nephew, Rev. James A. Brown, later became pastor of St. Jon's and once wrote that it was a tradition that the first person to be buried there was a maternal ancestor of the Browns. Anna Brown does not appear in the burial records of the church.

     45 This was spelled Castle on one of the Wythe County records. It is not known if he is the Henry Cassell born to Nicholas Cassell (Catharine's brother-in-law) and his first wife. Later records after the family moved to Preble County, Ohio all spell the name Castle.

    46 In 1796 they had sold their Augusta County land to this same George Surfus.

     47 In the county history for Charles Bickel from Otoe County, Nebraska it mentions that his father died in Botetourt County.

     48 On a WFT disc contributed by one of his descendants his year of birth is listed as 1771.

    49 The date was obtained from Dianah’s application for a widow’s pension from Anthony’s service in the war of 1812. Their marriage does not appear in the Wythe County marriage records or in the records of St. John’s Lutheran Church.

     50 Florence Guttery, Records of the Chappells in England and the Chappells in Virginia , Tennessee , Alabama and Other States (Jasper, Ala.: Florence Guttery, 197?) 7-13.

     51 Phil E. Chappell, A Genealogical History of the Chappell, Dickie and other Kindred Families of Virginia. (Kansas City, Mo.: Hudson-Kimberly Publishing Company, 1900) 32-4.

    52 The Speedwell is a famous vessel. In 1620 it set sail for America with the Mayflower, only to spring a leak the first day out. It returned to port and the passengers were transferred to the Mayflower.

    53 There had been a Jonas Chappell living in Princess Anne County in the late 1690s. I considered him to be a leading candidate to be our ancestor, but a will eventually surfaced, which showed he had no descendants when he died in 1704. This could be the Jonah Chappell from Barbados, mentioned above. See the notes on the early Virginia Chappell ancestry in appendix V.

    54 See appendix V for further information on the early Chappell ancestry.

    55 See John Chappell's will in appendix I.

    56 Florence Kimberly Turner, Gateway to the New World A History of Princess Anne County , Virginia 1607-1824 (Easley, S.C.:Southern Historical Press, 1984) 191.

    57 Turner, 181-82.

     58 Turner, 182-88.

    59 Turner, 184.

    60 From British military records, "C" series, 1757-1899, located at the National Archives of Canada.

     61 Stephen's sister was also named Mary, so this could conceivably have been she.

    62 John Harvie Creecy, ed. Princess Anne County Loose Papers 1700-1789 ( Richmond, Va. The Dietz Press, Inc, 1954) 87.

    63 John Buchanan, The Road to Guilford Courthouse (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997) 202.

    64 Buchanan, 204.

    65 Buchanan, 204-5.

    66 Wilma Dykeman, With Fire and Sword ( Washington, DC: National Park Service U.S. Department of the Interior) 28-29.

    67 Dykeman, 31-3.

    68 Dykeman, 33.

    69 Dykeman, 34.

    70 Dykeman, 37.

    71 Buchanan, 217-8.

     72 Dykeman, 42.

    73 There seems to have been more than one Peter Kinder at this time and in this part of the country, so it hasn't been conclusively proven that the Peter Kinder from Peter's Creek and the Peter Kinder from western Wythe County were the same person. After his parents died in the flood, there is one account that describes the young Peter as a runaway.

    74 e-mail from Linda Gaylord-Kuhn July 1, 1999. Dianah's birth date was calculated from the age inscribed on her tombstone, and it coincided with the birth date of Phoeby (also known as Phoebe).

    75 On the land documents her name is consistently spelled Julia Ann. On the church records she is Juliana.

     76 The surname is spelled Schapbel on the church records.

    77 A James Chappell family lived nearby in Surrey County when the Stephen Chappell family lived in Glade Valley.

    78 This was the way it was spelled in John Chappell's will, but Francis was a female.

    79 J. A. Caldwell, History of Belmont and Jefferson Counties , Ohio, (Wheeling, W.Va.: Historical Publishing Co., 1880) 34.

    80 The dates don't coincide exactly with the Seven Years War (1756-1763) in Europe. The French and Indian War effectively ended with the fall of Montreal in 1760. The war continued for three more years in Europe.

    81 Caldwell, 47-48.

     82 Caldwell, 49-51

    83 Caldwell, 57-58.

    84 Caldwell, 58.

    85 Caldwell, 59-69.

     86 Caldwell, 85-91.

    87 Caldwell, 89.

     88 Caldwell, 91-92.

     89 There was actually a naval battle fought after this in the Bahamas, just before the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783.

     90 Caldwell's history was used as the source for the facts used in constructing the story of the upper Ohio River Valley during the Revolutionary War.

    91 Henry Howe, Historical Collection of Ohio (Cincinnati: Morgan & Co., 1851) 177-180.

     92 Howe, 181-2.

    93 History of Gallia County, (Chicago and Toledo: H. H. Hardesty & Co., 1882) XV.

    94 In various documents the name is spelled Dianah, Dyanah, and Dinah.

     95 John P. Hale, History of the Great Kanawha Valley. (Gauley, W.V.:Gauley and New River Publishing Co. Gauley, W.V., 1994) 24-5.

    96 This information was obtained from Susan's pension application.

    97 Virginia's western counties seceded from the state in 1863 and became the state of West Virginia, but at the start of the war this was rebel territory.

     98 These letters can be found on the web site in the Civil War section of the website. There were 4 letters written, but one of the issues of the newspaper was missing and so only 3 letters were available.

     99 The prison was evacuated apparently because the Confederates expected Sherman’s troops to come and liberate it but the prison was not directly in Sherman’s path.

     100 This article was discovered by Betty Stevens.

     101 My Braun / Brown family from Lebanon Co., PA Wythe Co., VA Clinton Co., OH p. 53 by Leila Smith Balis.

     102 Camp Morgan. <> ( 29 July 2002).

    103 Camp Morgan.

    104 Morgan's Raid. <> ( 2 August 2002).

    105 Morgan's Raid. <> ( 31 July 2002).

    106 "15th of July," Official Military Reports of Morgan's Raid into SouthEastern Ohio. <> ( 3 August 2002).

    107 Ibid.

    108 "19th of July," Official Military Reports of Morgan's Raid into SouthEastern Ohio. <> ( 31 July 2002).

    109 Morgan's Raid, <> ( 2 August 2002).

    110 "7th Ohio Cavalry," < Artillery Cavalry Ohio 11th and 7th>. <> ( 31 July 2002).

    111 "19th of July," Official Military Reports of Morgan's Raid into SouthEastern Ohio. <> ( 2 August 2002).

    112 Lester V. Horwitz, The Longest Raid of the Civil War ( Cincinnati: Farmcourt Publishing, Inc., 2001). 222.

    113 Morgan's Raid. <> ( 2 August 2002).

     114 Lester V. Horwitz, 356-364.

    115 Encyclopedia Britannica, 200th anniversary ed., s.v. " Scotland."

    116 Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. " Scotland."

     117 Both Mary and Elizabeth were descended from Henry VII. Elizabeth through her father, Henry VIII. Mary was descended from Henry VIII’s sister, Margaret, who was her grandmother.

    118 Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. Mary Stuart."

    119 Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. Mary Stuart."

    120 Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. Mary Stuart."

     121 Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. “Mary Stuart.”

     122 J. M. Rusk, History of the Parish and Abbey of Glen Luce (Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood & Sons Ltd.,1930), 96.

     123 Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. “Scotland.”

     124 Rusk, 120.

     125 Clan MacMillan History, <> 2-3.

    126 Clan MacMillan History, 1-3.

    127 See newspaper article in appendix III.

    128 J. M. Rusk, History of the Parish and Abbey of Glen Luce (Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood & Sons Ltd. 1930),69-74.

    129 Rusk, 75-81.

     130 P. H. M'Kerlie, History of the Lands and Their Owners in Galloway (Paisley: Alexander Gardner, 1906) 566-69.

    131 M'Kerlie, 569-72.

    132 William Scot, ed. Parish Lists of Wigtownshire and Minnigaff, (Edinburgh: J. Skinner & Co., Ltd., 1916.) 7-69.

    133 See James MacMillan's will in appendix I.

    134 Jacob and George Wise were sons of Philip Wise and might have been brothers of John. See the chapter on the Wise Guys.

    135 In his will, George McMillen specifically mentioned that his daughter, Jane, was deceased, and he makes special provision for her children. The will can be found in appendix I.

     136 There is another son, Joseph, born after 1800, who lived in Belmont County about whom very little is known, but who at one point lived in the same village as his brother, John, and whose daughter is buried in the same cemetery plot as John and John’s first wife, Jane.

    137 Most likely this marriage would have been recorded in the records of New Park Presbyterian Church. This church was established about 1780, but an actual search through the church records failed to find any records at all that date before about 1810.

    138 Kent Rumbaugh, <> "Re: Jacob Wise," 21 September 2001, personal e-mail ( 21 September 2001).

     139 See land transaction for Nov. 26, 1817 in appendix II.

    140 See George MacMillan's will in appendix I.

    141 Esther Weygandt Powell, Tombstone Inscriptions & Family Records of Belmont County , Ohio. (Apollo, Pa.:Clossen Press. 1969). 97.

    142 See John Wise's will in appendix I.

    143 See land deed in appendix IV.

     144 The name J. H. Newman is written on the back of a photograph in the family photograph collection. The name appears as Alexander Newman on census records. The marriage was in 1899 and occurred shortly after Alexander's first wife died. I suspect this was an arranged marriage because Alexander needed a wife to care for his young children. He lived in Missouri, but had Gallia County relatives. I don't have specific proof about this being an arranged marriage, but the circumstances suggest that this was the case.

     145 She probably died of tuberculosis. A first cousin of hers who lived nearby, was known to have died of TB.

    146 " Agassiz, Lake" Encarta Encyclopedia <http://www.state.nd.ushist/chrono.htm> (January 2001).

    147 Encyclopedia Britannica, S.V. " North Dakota."

    148 Encyclopedia Britannica, S.V. " North Dakota."

     149 State Historical Society of North Dakota, Chronology of North Dakota History, <> (10 January 2001).

    150 Alan Brinkley, The Unfinished Nation (Boston et al: McGraw-Hill 2000). 198-200.

    151 Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. " North Dakota."

    152 Ham Aasheim's maternal grandmother was forced to flee from one of these massacres.

     153 Malinda’s quarter section of land was actually foreclosed upon for non-payment of taxes.

     154 In Norway the name had been Elvik, and was still listed as Elvik on the 1900 census. It was changed to Elvick by the time of the 1910 census. In the Norwegian language there is no letter "c" except in foreign words.

    145 A vik, in Norwegian, is the land that surrounds a cove like indentation in the coastline. In the case of Elvik, there was just enough flat land to be subdivided into two farms.

    155 Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. " Norway."

     156 Encyclopedia Britannica, s.v. " Norway."

    157 The <>and the two websites, "Odin" <> ( 23 February 2001), and "origo: <> ( 23 February 2001), were used as sources for Norwegian history.

    158 Brita nad Ivar Skre, Vaksdal Bygdebok vol. 3,(Bergen: Vaksdal Bygdeboknemd, 1965), 118.

    159 The 1865 Norwegian census lists a daughter, Marie, age eleven. There is no further record of her and when another daughter was born in 1866, she was also named Marie. After a child died, it was often the custom to name a subsequent child with the same name.

    160 Skre,125.

    161 This apparently was subject to periodic change. When searching Norwegian census records it is important to know that this area was known as Haus instead of Bruvik. The steamship record for Nels Elvik, though, when he emigrated in 1879 identifies his region as Bruvik.

    162 Digitalarkivet. (Digital Archives of Norway) <> 1/29/2003.

    163 In the Norwegian language, the definite article, the, is placed at the end of the word as en; thus gard, meaning estate, followed by en becomes the estate.

     164 Since this was originally written in the 1990’s there has been some growth here and Mo is somewhat larger now.

     165 Nels Elvick was the person who immigrated from Norway in 1879. His son was named Nelson. During his immigration he was accompanied by his cousin Nils Otterstad. The similarity of names can be confusing.

    166 Joyce Swenseth Schmidt told me her grandparents lived in a sod hut about two miles south of the Elvick farm.

    167 As related to me by my grandmother, Gudrun Ona.

    168 Information from the 1900 Norwegian census.

    169 Data from the 1901 Norwegian census.

    170 The winds were not measured in this area. From post storm data, it was determined that this was the approximate center of the storm and it was probable the wind speeds were considerably higher.

    171 Most of this information was obtained in a personal conversation with Lowell Kallestad on August 24, 2001.

    172 M. A. :Johnson. Fifty Years of Country Storekeeping (Brainerd, MN: Lakeland Color Press, 1955) 240.

    173 Although I'm not completely sure, I think this was the same farm where the Ona family lived when they lived in Melvin Township.

    174 Johnson, 240.

    175 Personal conversation with Joyce Swenseth Schmidt, August 23, 2001.

    176 <>

     177 The Friedelsheim records read Boutsweyer. This may refer to Bouxwiller, a village in the Alsace in Northeast France, but this hasn’t been fully ascertained, so this still could be another town or region that hasn’t yet been found. The Freidelsheim records say he was from Boutsweyer, but no town with that exact spelling has been found.

     178 There was a heavy influx of Swiss settlers to this area after the Thirty Years War. The war ended in 1648 and the population had been decimated. So there may be many family connections to Switzerland for families from here.